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Table 1 Summary of clinical details for three groups of patients with aCL presenting with neurological events.

From: Cerebrovascular disease associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: more questions than answers

Demographics Patients fulfilling Sapporo classification criteria Group with transiently positive aCL Group with low positive aCL
Number of patients N = 26 N = 7 N = 12
Median age (years) 37.6 (6–63) 35.4 (16–51) 41.6 (19–59)
Number of episodes/patient    
1 19 4 6
2 7 3 6
Clinical presentations N = 33 N = 10 N = 18
Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis 1 1 -
Higher centre function loss 3 1 1
Left hemiparesis/paraesthesia 10 5 6
Right hemiparesis/paraesthesia 6 - 2
Brainstem/cerebellar symptoms 5 - 5
Loss of consciousness/seizures 4 - 1
Fluent aphasia, right facial weakness 1 - -
Bilateral cerebral infarction - 1 -
Cranial nerve palsies 1 2 1
Right homonymous hemianopia 1 - 1
Transient ischaemic attacks 1 - 1
Radiological findings N = 26 N = 7 N = 12
No abnormalities on CT or MRI scan 2 3 6
Left middle/posterior cerebral artery territory infarction 4 - 2
Right middle/posterior cerebral artery territory infarction 4 - -
Low density area (left temporal lobe) 2 - -
Increased signal cerebral deep white matter 3 1 2
Pontine/cerebellar infarction 2 1 1
Multiple cerebral infarcts 9 - 1
Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis - 1 -
Bilateral narrowing of carotid syphons - 1 -
Antiphospholipid studies:    
IgM aCL 6 moderate -high positive - 3 low positive
IgG aCL 18 moderate -high positive 1 low positive, 1 moderate positive 6 low positive, 3 moderate positive
Lupus anticoagulant KCT 9 4 2
Lupus anticoagulant DRVVT 9 6 2
Low to moderate IgG anti-β2GP1antibodies 7/12 (data incomplete) 1 low positive 1 low positive
Risk factors for vascular disease    
Hypercholesterolaemia 3 - 4
Hypertension 4 1 3
Tobacco use 3 2 3
Oral contraceptive pill/hormone replacement therapy 6 - 1
Pregnancy/post-partum period 2 1 -
Heterozygosity for factor V Leiden mutation   1 -
Long term warfarin 19 2 -
Warfarin (six months) - 1 1
Low dose aspirin 6 4 10
Clopidogrel/ticlopidine 1 - 1